During the digital signature check, the validation software uses a trustworthy public key to validate the digital signature that the certificate issuer (i.e., the Certificate Authority--CA) has applied to the certificate content.
The key can be the public key of the issuing CA or of another CA that's part of the certificate's certificate chain--a hierarchical trust model that I explain later.
Certificate-chain validation might trigger different certificate-validation loops for each certificate in the chain.
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To validate a digital certificate, a Windows public key infrastructure (PKI)-enabled application must determine whether the certificate and the public key it contains are trustworthy.
Validating a certificate requires the certificate-validation logic in the PKI-enabled application to perform a series of checks on different parts of the certificate.